The 17th Annual Conference of the European Society of Criminology is fast approaching and to my great joy I selected the papers that will be presented by Polish criminologists. Good luck to everyone!
Theme: Shaping police discretion
Monika Baylis (University of Huddersfield)
Police discretion on Anti-Social Behaviour – Polish and English approaches
Anti-social Behaviour (ASB) has become a popular key topic of public and political concern in the UK, the introduction of the Crime, ASB and Policing Act(2014) and the recent proposal of Policing and Crime Bill (2016) go some way to demonstrating that commitment. However, Police can play a major role in the process of criminalisation as well as being a vital link of improving community relationships in general. Therefore, one of the main aims of the research is to develop a better understanding of the relationships between cop culture, practice and the acculturation process by exploring the notion of police discretion itself while addressing ASB amongst young people (under 18 years old) in Poland and England. This comparative study examines the course of action taken by 32 serving police officers (16 from England and 16 from Poland) and their explanations for their decision making. It is hoped that the findings will be used to strengthen the capability and accountability of the police service and improve future police training by offering a valuable ‘insight’ into the decision making process and other factors surrounding it.
Theme: Legitimacy and Justice
Dr Karol Konaszewski (University of Białystok)
Resilience, sense of coherence and stress-coping styles in the group of juveniles
The objective of the article is the answer to the question if the level of the sense of coherence and resilience is linked with stress-coping styles in the group of subjects. The study was conducted on a group of 210 juveniles, aged 13-18 years in the case of whom the family court applied the educational means of placing them in the probation centers. The research employed the Life Orientation Questionnaire by Antonovsky, RS14 by Wagnild and the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations Questionnaire by Endler and Parker. In the group of youth, correlation coefficients indicate a moderate, positive relationship of the sense of coherence and its three components: a sense of comprehensibility, a sense of manageability and a sense of meaningfulness with a task-focused style. Also in the group of juveniles, correlation coefficients indicate a moderate, positive relationship of the resilience and stress coping styles based on problem-solving. The analysis model (regression analyses) showed that the significant predictors of stress-coping styles were sense of coherence and resilience. The results of this study have important implications for social rehabilitation. Future interventions could be based on the strengthening of sense of coherence and resilience in analyzed group.
Theme: Controlling violence and harm in a range of contexts
Joanna Ptak (Jagiellonian University)
On typology of strategies of combating honour-based violence: The case of Germany, the Netherlands and the UK.
Honour-based violence, hereinafter referred to as HBV, is not a new phenomenon, not known previously in the countries of Western Europe before XXI century. Although it is not inclusive as a tradition of any specific society, it has been contextualized as such in the public discourses in countries like Germany, the UK (with special focus given to England & Wales) or the Netherlands. HBV is presented as the problem of various minorities, such as those of Kurdish or Turkish origin and, consequently, as an issue connected with “migration”. As phenomena connected with multiculturalism and criminal policy are a subject of an ongoing, criminological debate, discussion over efficiency of strategies of tackling this kind of violence is of great importance. The main aim of this presentation is to depict a typology of strategies of combating HBV and to discuss them with the use of such factors as universality or possibility of evaluation of their effectiveness. Research methods, which were used in this research, are desk research (analysis of various reports, guidelines, strategies that were prepared by either governmental institutions, police or non-governmental organizations) and expert interviews that were conducted in the Netherlands, the UK and Germany.
Theme: Aspects of financial crime
Paulina Pawluczuk & Iga Kalinowska-Maksim (University of Białystok)
Offenses affecting the proper business trading -based on the own study of young researchers of Białystok School of Criminology
A crime of counterfeiting medicinal products, that consists of introducing such medicines into the legal supply chain, especially through the Internet, is a serious problem affecting not only public health, but also the proper business trading. The own research, based also on the outcomes resulting from cooperation within the ALPhA research project, conducted at the request of the German Ministry for Education and Research, as well as from the project concerning transposition of Article 118a of the Directive 2011/62/EU at issue, conducted for the European Commission, aims at answering lots of important questions. An analysis of the Directive allows the finding that the implemented regulations, may prove to be merely dead letters, as indicated by their detection in Poland. The total number of ascertained offenses is zero, which constitutes proof to the contrary with respect to WHO estimates in this regard. Acting to the detriment of creditors, is the second crime, analysed by the authors. The offense is a relatively new issue, faced by every country. Taking advantage of foreign countries’ legal regulations, investing and depositing financial resources on their markets under a pretence of newly created commercial companies and partnerships causes illegal and uncontrolled cash flows, and is detrimental to the financial system.
Theme: Antisocial behaviour and young people
Dr Karol Konaszewski & Dr Tomasz Sosnowski (University of Białystok)
The big five personality traits and environmental factors as predictors of the antisocial behaviours among juveniles
Background: The article is an analysis of the results of the studies conducted among juveniles (boys and girls) in the case of whom the family court applied the educational means of placing them in the youth educational centers. The aim of the study was to find out the correlations between antisocial behaviours, personality traits and the environmental determinants (support factors and risk factors) among juveniles (boys and girls). Methods: The total of 481 juveniles staying in youth educational centers participated in the study. Applied research tools: The Antisocial Behaviors Scale by L. Pytka, NEO-FFI by P.T. Costa and R.R. McCrae was used to diagnose personality traits included in a popular five-factor model (it has been adapted into Polish by B. Zawadzki, J. Strelau, P. Szczepaniak, and M. Śliwińska) and a questionnaire concerning support factors and risk factors was constructed to measure environmental determinants. The data was analysed in a regression model. Findings: The analysis model showed that the significant predictors of antisocial behaviours were neuroticism, extraversion, conscientiousness and negative relations at school. In girls group the significant predictors of antisocial behaviours were neuroticism, conscientiousness, family support and negative relations at school, while in boys group
Theme: Gendered crimes & gendered challenges
Professor Monika Płatek (Warsaw University)
Violence against women – going the Polish way
The Polish government announced the will to withdraw from the Council of Europe Convention on preventing and combating violence against women. There are thorough efforts to make it look as if the concept of domestic violence and violence against women ceased to exist. The tools used to reach that goal are simple: The President of the country asked not to implement the CoE Convention. President – the man responsible for observing the country law called for the neglect and ignoring of the Convention. The Minister of Justice cut down the funds for the organizations caring for victims of domestic violence. The Minister of Interior decline to support telephone helpline organized to help and prevent domestic violence and violence against women. The idea is that if you deprive the phenomenon of its name it is not supposed to exist. If you stop seeing violence against women, then violence against women ceases to exist. It creates an interesting analytical situation. Michel Foucault pointed out that the naming creates the category. The name invents and generates the existence. What are than the results of wishful blindness? What are the consequences for domestic violence and violence against women; and what are the cost and results?
Theme: Offending and victimisation: different perspectives and contexts
Dr Emilia Jurgielewicz-Delegacz (Faculty of Law, University of Białystok)
Traffic Accidents in Poland and Actions to Improve Road Safety of Blind and Visually Impaired Persons – in the Light of Research Project
Traffic safety has been improving in Poland for several years. The year 2015 was important in this regard as the number of persons who died in traffic accidents in Poland was smaller by 264 and the number of persons injured was smaller by 2 767 than in 2014. In the European traffic safety ranking, prepared by the European Commission (2015), Poland was 3 positions higher than in the previous years. Also, Poland achieved higher than average in Europe drop in the number of deaths in traffic accidents. However, Poland is still facing many difficult tasks on its way to improving the traffic safety level. The research project “Elaboration of a system for detection of hazards to the safety of blind and visually impaired persons with particular focus on road traffic. Criminal law and technological aspects”, headed by prof. Ewa M. Guzik-Makaruk, was carried out by members of Białystok School of Criminology. The project aimed at diagnosing the safety needs of the blind and visually impaired highway users taking into account legal and criminological conditions. It results from the fact that moving freely, in urban places in particular, poses a big challenge for the persons with sight disorders.
Theme: ISRD3 panel 3: Comparative research in delinquency in under-researched countries: Serbia, Poland, Turkey and Cape Verde (ISRD)
Professor Ewa Monika Guzik-Makaruk, Marta Dąbrowska, Przemysław Alkowski, Arkadiusz Dorian Leśniak-Moczuk (University of Białystok, Faculty of Law, Białystok, Poland)
ISRD-3 Study in Poland: preliminary results of the survey conducted by Bialystok School of Criminology
The aim of this presentation is to introduce the preliminary results of ISRD-3 Poland. The goal of this research is to collect data on delinquency and victimization among 7th–9th-grade students as well as explore and test contemporary theoretical approaches in criminology with the additional modules in the questionnaire. This presentation is based on a discussion of challenges in the fieldwork as well as preliminary statistical analysis of Polish ISRD- 3 data. Survey was conducted by Białystok School of Criminology in 2017 in two large polish cities: Białystok and Rzeszow, using the ISRD third-wave standardized questionnaire with national module on grooming added.
Theme: Youth offending
Dr Dagmara Woźniakowska-Fajst (University of Warsaw, Polish Academy of Sciences)
The criminal careers of juvenile girls and multi-problems families
During studies on juvenile girls delinquency the author examined nearly 900 court files of crimes committed by girls in 2000. These big groups of juveniles were checked twice (in 2010 and 2015) for their further criminal career. The Polish studies show that there are a few models of criminal career. Except the group of girls who haven’t been convicted for any crime, we can distinguish three groups of recidivists: “early recidivists” who committed crimes in a few years after having case as a juvenile and stopped their criminal career (45%), “late recidivists” (32%) who hadn’t been sentenced in 10 years after having a case a juvenile, but committed crime later and “permanent recidivists” (23%) who were committing crimes for whole 15 years after their case in 2000. The studies on criminal career show also that long criminal career is positively correlated with growing up in multi-problem family.
Theme: Crime control policy: development and reform
Professor Wojciech Zalewski (Faculty of Law and Administration, University of Gdansk)
Paradoxes of the Current Criminal Policy
Do we really have criminal policy in Europe or in particular country like Poland, for example? In the Cambridge Dictionary “policy” is defined as “a set of ideas or a plan of what to do in particular situations that have been agreed to officially by a group of people, a business organization, a government, or a political party”. Have we got “a plan” concerning current criminal policy? I doubt it. But, if the first answer is “yes” anyway, we have to ask other important questions. What are the most effective policies for reducing crime nowadays? How can we effectively enhance public safety in current times? We know that what we really need is criminal policy concentrated not only on risk assessment, not only cost – effective, but inclusive as well. How to achieve this goal without “a plan”? This is the main paradox of the current criminal policy, but there are many others.
Theme: Minority prisoners
Dr Konrad Buczkowski & Dr Paulina Wiktorska (The Institute of Law Studies of the Polish Academy of Sciences)
Foreigners in Polish prisons. The law and practice of taking into account cultural differences
Polish executive law allows for the possibility of implementing an individualised approach to imprisonment in a system encompassing programmed, therapeutic or normal rehabilitation. Polish laws take into full account the Convention’s standards on the prohibition of torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 1984 and the European Prison Rules issued by the Council of Europe. There are no specific provisions in Polish legislation relating to the imprisonment of foreigners, however, the guarantees of respect for dignity and cultural distinctiveness arise directly from the general principles for imprisonment. The number of foreigners incarcerated in Polish prisons is small. Every year, approximately 7,000 foreigners are convicted in Poland. Of this group, on average, 300 are serving a prison sentence. In our presentation we will outline the characteristics of this group of convicted criminals based on the available statistical data and in relation to the regulations in effect in Poland.
Theme: Methodological perspectives in criminology
Dr Przemysław Piotrowski & Dr Stefan Florek (Jagiellonian University in Krakow)
Methodological and ethical dilemmas of research conducted in prison
Research involving prisoners is an important source of data in criminology. At the same time, however, there are many factors that affect the reliability and credibility of data obtained from inmates. Authors will point to selected advantages and limitations of the most commonly used research methods (questionnaires, interviews, methods using computer devices). Some issues related to the ethical aspect of research involving prisoners will also be raised.
Dr Stefan Florek & Dr Przemysław Piotrowski (The Department of Forensic Psychology and Criminology, Institute of Applied Psychology, Faculty of Management and Social Communication, Jagiellonian University in Kraków)
Values of criminals: a cognitive-evolutionary approach
It is quite evident that behavior of an individual, including criminal behavior, is to some extent determined by her or his hierarchy of values. In cognitive science, the mind is considered as an information processing system directed towards the realization of goals or values that the individual may or may not be aware of. Evolutionary psychology explains what goals people are not aware of and what is the cause of it. Adopting a cognitive-evolutionary perspective, we will discuss the ways to explore and study the offenders’ hierarchy of (conscious and unconscious) values. In particular, we will refer to the possibility of reconstructing this hierarchy on the basis of analysis of offenders’ narratives. We will also present some of our initial findings concerning the interdependencies between offenders’ value systems and their crimes.
Theme: Risk & communication
Professor Izabela Nowicka (Police Academy in Szczytno)
Pathologies in communication in hierarchical organizations
More than a century ago, around 1903, Frederick Winslow Taylor distinguished one of the cognitive areas – management. Despite this fact, it was not stated that it did not exist earlier. If that were the case, primitive people would not be able to hunt, cultivate, sediment, classify, or prevent any emerging aberrations in large groups. The publication deals with management issues in hierarchical organization. The consequences of the occurrence of social pathologies also apply to the organization as a specific social construct. Management is the process that drives an organization to achieve its goals efficiently and effectively. Efficiency means a positive ratio of effort towards results (mini-loss). One of the elements in achieving this efficiency is the right communication in the publication between elements of the organization. Pathology as any dysfunction in an organization does not allow achieving realistic, defined for an organization and in accordance with the social welfare of the objectives at the assumed time and with specified means. The material was prepared under the project entitled “Building an information system supporting communication in the Police and other services subordinated to the Ministry of Interior in the aspect of internal security”,
Theme: Key themes in contemporary youth justice
Professor Irena Rzeplińska (Institute of Law Studies Polish Academy of Sciences)
Criminal record: the future lives of ex-juvenile delinquents
Some juvenile delinquents tried for punishable acts before a youth court commit crimes and receive sentences in their future lives – a fact established by criminology. In my paper I will present findings concerning former juvenile delinquents (a representative sample of Polish juvenile delinquents tried before youth courts in 2000) fifteen years after – their criminal activity as adults over the course of a decade roughly until the age of 30.I am interested in how juveniles stay within the criminal community and whether criminal activity is an important part of their lives. I will analyse the types of crimes committed, the “specialization” of perpetrators, whether they commit one or many different types of crimes, multiple offenders, and the structure of the group as compared to the overall structure of criminality in Poland. What do the types of crimes committed by former juvenile delinquents tell us about their lives as members of society, of families, and about private lives? What are their political, social and economic circumstances as adult offenders, and what does their criminal activity tell us about them as members of the criminal milieu ?
Theme: Prison life and prison resettlement
Professor Beata Gruszczyńska (University of Warsaw)
Life imprisonment in European countries
This article is based on the Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics SPACE I. The paper uses basic data on prison populations in European countries in absolute numbers and coefficients per 100 000 population. The percentage of women in prison is also reported. The methodological aspects of the collection of European penitentiary data relating to various criminal systems and reporting systems were also discussed. The main part of the study is the statistical image of prisoners serving life imprisonment. Comparing penal statistics in 2006 and 2015, analysis shows that their numbers have increased significantly (almost one third), despite decreasing the crime trend (including homicides). The percentage of women who have been sentenced to life imprisonment has also been shown. It is important to discuss the future of criminal policy, the penalty of deprivation of liberty, in particular the penalty of life imprisonment, which on the one hand deals with moral, ethical and human rights issues, on the other hand – in the context of the brutalization of crimes, terrorist attacks and penal populism meets the request of wide judgment.
Theme: The impact of relationships, agency and migration in Human Trafficking Investigations
Dr Klaus Witold & Monika Szulecka (Institute of Law Studies, Polish Academy of Sciences and Centre of Migration Research, University of Warsaw)
Addressing the risks of labour exploitation – the case of Poland
According to 2015 official report on trafficking in human beings, Poland witnessed an important change in trends. After two decades of predomination of sexual exploitation and women among victims, there has been a visible increase in identified cases of forced labour and men as victims. It is worth discussing whether this is the result of work performed by law enforcement and NGOs or it reflects the realities of the phenomena. Taking into account continuous emigration from Poland for economic purposes, and the dramatic increase in inflow of economic migrants it may be expected that the predomination of forced labour will characterise trafficking in Poland in the future. In this context it is important to identify the risks of labour exploitation as a form of THB, and how (if at all) the risk factors are addressed by institutions responsible for combating THB. The existing knowledge and numerous signals of precarious conditions of migrant work imply factors related to, e.g., institutional framework, specificity of the labour market and cultural backgrounds. The analysis will be based on empirical data gathered between 2014-2017, in the project focused on criminality and victimisation of foreigners, and other existing sources.
Piotr Karasek (University of Warsaw)
Security through restrictions. A brief history of countering terrorism.
Terrorism is often perceived as one of the most serious threats to contemporary societies, justifying various legislative responses. In the wake of a terrorist attack, governments often respond by introducing new (or harsher than before) restrictions on civil liberties. All such actions, of course, seek to reduce the threat level and to enhance public security. This approach is hardly innovative – governments have been trying to achieve security through restrictions as long as terrorism itself exist. While specific extreme ideologies and their objectives change, terrorism has been troubling western countries since at least the end of XIXth century. Methods used by terrorists in different times are often surprisingly similar. For example, contemporary ‘lone wolf terrorism’ tactics closely resemble the ‘propaganda of the deed’ promoted by anarchists over a century ago. An analysis of the history of countering terrorism shows that repressive actions and restrictions did not succeed in resolving the problem in the past, and there is little evidence it does today. Proposed presentation explores the subject of countering terrorism through restrictions and repressive actions from a historical perspective.
Theme: Youth justice in comparative perspective
Justyna Włodarczyk-Madejska (Department of Criminology The Institute of Law Studies of the Polish Academy of Science and the Institute of Justice)
Aims of proceeding in juvenile cases in the court practice
Proposed speech is a summary of the research project realized in The Institute of Law Studies of the Polish Academy of Science. In the course of project, there was conducted national surveys addressed to juvenile judges, professional family probation officers, experts from diagnostic teams (total 961 responses) and the individual in-depth interviews with selected representatives of these groups (total 30). The aim of my speech is to present the results of the researches, the mainly the answer on the question: how do juvenile courts realize in practice the aims of the Act on Proceeding in Juvenile Cases. Researches, in the application of law, have been considered particularly important because the law obliges the juvenile judges to collect information about juvenile and his/her environment – directly or indirectly (by supporting institutions). During the presentation, I will also address the following issues: 1) in which cases the juvenile judges commission to prepare a diagnostic opinion in which – an environmental interview, 2) what questions the juvenile judges refer to the diagnostic teams and to the professional family probation officers, 3) do juvenile judges suggest the recommendations of diagnostic teams and professional family probation officers regarding to application of educational or corrective measures.
Theme: Courts, lawyers and criminal justice in the European context
Dr Paulina Wiktorska & Dr Konrad Buczkowski (Institute of Law Studies of the Polish Academy of Sciences)
Lawyers about the law and their profession in Polish changing political reality
Lawyers are responsible for crime control and monitoring compliance with the law in society. Research of classic legal profession; judges, prosecutors, advocates shows how they understand the law, functions of the law and how they identify with their profession. This paper describes problems of contemporary law and the results of this, the difficulty of working in the legal professions. This is based on research reflection on the competences of the legal profession. In contemporary Poland we have problem with legal relation between political institutions and lawyers especially courts. It is obvious that a large area exist where courts operate, but governments and parliaments also make decisions but polish government uses the law to realization political interests mainly. Various elements may help to explain this situation. We try discuss some of them.
The role of a court guardian in family court proceedings in Poland
Dr Lukasz Kwadrans (University of Silesia in Katowice)
The role of a court guardian in family court proceedings in Poland
What has been undertaken in this report is presenting the profile of a part of the tasks of guardianship service in Poland. Its family division is described – the work of guardians who execute the adjudicated decisions. In compliance with the legal regulations, the tasks of family guardians are indicated which are associated with the execution of decisions and orders of family courts. It should be emphasized that diagnostic activities (environmental interviews) do not constitute the dominant part of the duties due to a different role of Polish court guardians from the British social services. Family guardians in Poland are mostly an executive organ of the court and their activity is associated entirely with executing decisions and consists in educational and re-socialization activities.
Theme: Perspectives on organised crime
Professor Jacek Dworzecki (Police Academy in Szczytno)
The Central Investigation Bureau of the Police in the fight against organized crime
The first part of material presents the tasks and the structure of the CIB. In the material there have been used research methods in the form of diagnostic survey, legislative act analysis and the available subject literature. The results of the diagnostic survey conducted with the policemen, shows that the changes in the character of organized crime in the last fifteen years. Its present form as well as the direction in which it will develop are discussed. Then material presents the opinion of the interviewees on excluding the CIB from the structures of the PH. It discusses the factors which, have a negative impact on the work of functionaries. Also, the opinion on the training courses, technical equipment and cooperation of the CIB policemen with other institutions has been described. Creating the organizational unit enabled the Police to increase its manager’s entitlements in applying a more efficient personnel policy on police officers and employees of the Police on duty or employed in the CIB. This material was prepared within the framework of an international research project entitled “Understand the Dimensions of Organised Crime and Terrorist Networks for Developing Effective and Efficient Security Solutions for First-line-practitioners and Professionals”
Theme: Criminology in Europe – Białystok School of Criminology
Katarzyna Ciulkin-Sarnocińska (University in Białystok, Faculty of Law)
Surrogacy in the research in Białystok school of Criminal Law
The study looks into the research conducted within the Białystok school of Criminal Law relating to the attitudes of adult population of Poland to surrogacy, which hitherto has not been the focus of any monograph. The population sample (N=1000) was representative in terms of sex, age, and residence. The project was conducted using a quantitative method in the form of a telephone questionnaire (CATI). The Computer Assisted Telephone Interview was consisted in telephone conversations with respondents during which the interviewer enters the subject’s responses into an online questionnaire form. The study also utilized a Voice over IP (VoIP) system. The questionnaire consisted in seven demographic questions and ten main study questions, and was conducted on 23-29 May 2017. The results of the study indicate that the majority of Poles knows of the concept of surrogacy. Fewer than one in ten Poles know someone who used the services of a surrogate mother. Only several percent of Poles were in contact with surrogate mothers. More than 1/10 of the population is convinced of the legality of surrogacy. The conducted research is the first comprehensive study into the phenomenon of surrogacy.
Professor Emil Plywaczewski & Professor Ewa Guzik-Makaruk (Faculty of Law, University of Białystok)
New approach of criminology in the light of Białystok School of Criminology
After the Second World War significance of criminology has been marginalized. The history begins in the 6o’s of twentieth century. Criminology was introduced in law teaching programs mostly as optional subjecct. Only some law faculties introduced it as obligatory subject. Broad spectrum of research on issues of science criminology in many institutions, centers and academic institutions was an eloquent proof of the dynamic development of criminology in Poland at that time. Currently, as is commonly known – in the US criminology is a part of the departments of sociology, while in Europe it involves the law faculties. The particular note is an achievement that is probably the most important one, if not revolutionary, to the contemporary status of criminology in Poland. The subject that so far has been considered as marginal in the teaching process, as a field of science. The high evaluation of the scientific and research achievements of the staff of the Criminal Law and Criminology of the Faculty of Law University of Białystok – Białystok School of Criminology.
Emilia Truskolaska & Ewelina Wojewoda (University of Białystok)
Achievements of Young Criminologist of Białystok School of Criminology
At the beginning of speech, speakers will introduce to other works and researchers, but this time regarding works of young criminologist. Activity of young scientist towards the development of criminology is one of the priorities of Criminology School Białystok. Young people lead a pioneering research regarding such a subjects as parental kidnapping or criminological aspects of homeless people, which the main idea will be presented in the speech. Moreover one of the most important event that have been organized by young scholars took place at the Faculty of Law, University of Białystok on 19-20 May 2016. It was a pioneering project at the national level under the title International Forum of Young Criminologists. Thanks to this idea Criminology School Białystok created a first research platform for the exchange of experiences of young criminologists. The aim of the Forum was to integrate the group of young scientists representing different fields and also to create a place for them to substantive exchange of information, experience and research achievements in the field of criminology.
Theme: Cross-national perspectives in crime and sanctions
Mr Bartosz Kędzierski (University of Gdansk, Institute of Criminology)
Electronic Monitoring of Offenders in Poland: Evaluation Research
According to rule no. 40 of Recommendation CM/Rec (2014)4 of the Committee of Ministers to member States on electronic monitoring- research and independent evaluation and monitoring shall be carried out in order to help national authorities take informed decisions regarding the ethical and professional aspects of the use of electronic monitoring in the criminal process. After several years of polish experiences with EM we can construct some conclusions. Current usage of EM in Poland shows that our system is placed on important position in Europe, but we have only basic statistical data prepared by Central Prison Service Office. To this moment no EM system evaluation has been performed. In this paper author will present current problems with EM in Poland in the light of author’s evaluation research grant.
For more information on the conference programme please visit the following webpage: EuroCrim 2017 Cardiff